Filosofía de la naturaleza y fenomenología material: cuando el búho de minerva deja de hacer vigilia en la noche sueña
Philosophy of nature and material phenomenology: when minerva’s owl stops making vigil in the night and dreams
Ballén Rodríguez, Juan Sebastián
De considerar los fundamentos metafísicos de disciplinas humanistas que andan en boga hoy día como la bioética o la ecofilosofía, se tendría que considerar las discusiones de fondo generadas en la modernidad por la filosofía de la naturaleza y la fenomenología material. Efectivamente, la genealogía de los dioses, la teogonía, la antropología y los dilemas éticos implicados en una especulación en torno al concepto de naturaleza, fueron tópicos adelantados por el Schelling en su libro Investigaciones filosóficas sobre la esencia de la libertad humana y los objetos con ella relacionados.When considering the metaphysical foundations of humanistic disciplines that are in trend today as bioethics and ecophilosophy, would have to be considered the substantive discussion in modernity for the philosophy of nature and material phenomenology. Indeed, genealogy of the gods, theogony, anthropology and ethical dilemmas involved in a speculation around the concept of nature, were topics developed by Schelling in his book Philosophical investigations into the essence of human freedom and the objects related to it. Another of the lines opened in this work is presented by Edmund Husserl, who in Crisis would propose philosophy as a science at the service of the purpose of humanity, beyond positive science and psychologism of the nineteenth century. The contrast of the philosophical bets of Schelling and Husserl will show that two philosophical attitudes excel in the metaphysical theming of nature: the account of a becoming science called upon to evoke great eastern and western mythological traditions or the Promethean force called upon to look after the ethical interest of a science determined in reducing the life-world to an event susceptible of quantifiable determination (positivism). Material phenomenology will emerge as a discussion presented by Michel Henry within the methodological assumptions of phenomenology, particularly in the approximation of a notion of matter that, skeptical of the possibilities that philosophy assumes the role of “employee of humanity”, will suggest a narrative close to the impressive chromate of the life-world, foreshortened by the encounter between subjectivity and matter. A correspondence that explores, among other things, not the becoming of philosophy in nature or the regulatory calling of a “strict science”, but the role of matter in the shaping of mental life, the unconscious and corporeality.Keywords: Philosophy of nature, phenomenology, material phenomenology, J.W.F. Schelling, Edmund Husserl, Michel Henry.